The information for this study has been collected from:
'The Two Babylons' first published in book form 1858, by Rev. Alexander Hislop a Free Church of Scotland minister,
Crompton's Interactive Encyclopedia CD © 1994, 1995 by Crompton's NewMedia Inc.,
Collier's Encyclopedia © 1967 by Crowell-Collier Publishing Company;
and Infopedia CD, Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia © 1995 by Funk and Wagnalls.
Nimrod was a leopard tamer, and wore a leopard skin as his distinctive dress. He was known as the 'Subduer of the Spotted one' and later he was called 'the spotted one' himself. As a youth he was often depicted as holding a cup, called khus, denoting him as the son of Cush. Another hieroglyphic connection with Bacchus (Nimrod), is the Ivy branch.
Harpocrates, the infant divinity, whose sacred symbol was the heart.
Horus, god of day, depicted as piercing the head of a snake with a spear.
Khons or Khonso, the god of the chase, whose name comes from a word that signifies 'to chase'.
Osiris, god of the sun, force of nature, ruler of the dead. Osiris represented the male productive force in nature, and became identified with the setting sun.
Sarapis, combine the names Osiris and Apis to get this. Another name for Osiris. See also Greek, Serapis.
Seb, whose symbol was the goose, part of the Egyptian Trinity.
Adonis, beautiful youth beloved by the goddesses Aphrodite and Persephone. He was slain by a wild boar while hunting.
Apollo, god of light and song, drove a chariot of the sun across the skies. He is also represented as slaying the serpent Pytho.
Ares, god of war.
Atlas, he fought with the Titans in the war against the Olympic deities. As punishment, he was condemned to bear forever on his back the earth and the heavens on his shoulders the great pillar that separates them.
Bacchus, in Greek and Roman mythology, god of wine, identified with Dionysus, the Greek god of wine, and Liber, the Roman god of wine. The distinguishing mark of his priests was either the shaving of the crown or the whole of the head.
Bassareus, meaning 'the houser of grapes or the vintage gatherer' and 'The Encompasser with a wall'.
Cronus or Kronos, one of the 12 Titans, who deposed his father and became ruler. He is identified with the Roman god Saturn.
Dionysus, god of wine, fertility, and vegetation. After the 5th century BC, Dionysus was known to the Greeks as Bacchus.
Eros, god of love.
Hades, god of the underworld.
Hephaestus, god of fire.
Heracles, whose Roman name was Hercules, is said to have strangled serpents while yet in his cradle.
Hermes, messenger of the gods.
Kissos, the Greek name for the Ivy plant.
Mithra, was worshipped as the mediator.
Nebrod, the Greek name for Nimrod, whose symbol was the spotted fawn.
Orpheus, legendary poet and musician. Orphism, in classical religion, mystic cult of ancient Greece, believed to have been drawn from his writings.
Poseidon, god of the sea.
Serapis, also Sarapis, in Greek and Egyptian mythology, a deity, variously associated with Osiris, Hermes, and Hades. Serapis was believed by Egyptians to be a human manifestation of Apis, a sacred bull that symbolised Osiris; in Greek mythology, Serapis was represented as a god of fertility and medicine and the ruler of the dead in Tararus.
Zeus, god of the sky and ruler of the Olympian gods. Zeus corresponds to the Roman god Jupiter.
Cupid, son of Venus, goddess of love. His counterpart in Greek is Eros, god of love.
Epidaurus snake, the serpent that represented the sun-divinity incarnate, in other words, the 'serpent of fire'.
Janus, the god of gods, who bore one key, Cybele the other, which opened the gates of the invisible world. He also bore a club or hammer. Quite often he is depicted as having two heads facing in opposite directions, which represented Nimrod and Cush.
Jupiter-puer or Jupiter (or Jove), the ruler of the gods, the son of the god Saturn, whom he overthrew. Originally the god of the sky and king of heaven, Jupiter was worshipped as god of rain, thunder, and lightning. The Romans identified Jupiter with Zeus, the supreme god of the Greeks.
Liber, god of wine.
Mars, god of war, king of the gods, and of his wife, Juno. He is identified with the Greek god of war, Ares. Mars in the Roman form of the Chaldea name 'Mar' or 'Mavor,' 'the rebel.'
Mercury, the messenger of the gods.
Neptune, god of the sea.
Pluto, god of the dead. His Greek counterpart was Hades.
Saturn, god of agriculture. He identified with the Greek god Cronus, and was the husband of Ops, goddess of plenty.
Vulcan, god of fire.
Agni, god of fire.
Crishna, the incarnation of Vishnu, who slayed the serpent Calyia.
Iswara, the son of Isi.
Siva, the husband of Kali.
Souro, 'the seed'.
Surya, god of the sun.
Deoius, the son of Cybele.
Baal, signifies 'the lord'.
Beel-samen, 'lord of heaven', 'lord of oil', the sun god.
Belus, meaning 'the Lord'. This name Nimrod inherited from his father.
El-Bar, 'god the son'.
Momis or Moumis, in Chaldea signified 'the spotted one'.
Zernebogus, Zer-Nebo-gus in almost pure Chaldea and denotes 'The seed of the prophet Cush.'
Consus, the god of horse races and of the hidden counsels , or the concealer of secrets. In one aspect he is identified with Neptune.
Tahmurs, 'who built Babylon'.
Zoroaster, 'the seed of fire'.
Thor, god of thunder, is said to have bruised the head of the great serpent with his mace.
Moloch, the god of barbarity and blood, a god to whom children were sacrificed.
Sheikh Shems, or the sun, and the Sheika Adi, or 'prince of eternity'.
Sheikh Shems, sun god.
Dagon, meaning 'the merman', the fish-god.
Fetiche, who is represented in the form of a crosier or pastoral staff.
This child, according to mystic legends made up by Semiramis, was the new incarnation of Nimrod, to avenge his death on his murderers. This posthumous child, is identified with his father, and inheriting all his father's glory, yet possessing more of his mother's complexion, came to be the favourite type of the Madonna's divine son. He was called by almost all the names of the promised Messiah as well as those of his alleged father, Nimrod.
Horus, part of the Egyptian Trinity.
Adon or Adonis.
Oannes or Joannes.
Saturn, god of agriculture, later identified with Greek god Cronus.
Souro, 'the seed'.
Vishnu, the preserver or Saviour of men.
Baal-berish - lord of the covenant.
Meni or Manai, the lord moon, and signifies 'the numberer'.
Mane or Mani, the name given to the 'man of the moon' in the 'Edda' and in the 'Voluspa'.
Surya, or the Sun, is represented as being incarnate, and born for the purpose of subduing the enemies of the gods.
Bar, 'the son' and 'the corn'.
The worship of the goddess-mother with the child in her arms continued to be observed in Egypt till Christianity entered. Instead of the Babylonian goddess being cast out, in too many cases her name only was changed. She was called the Virgin Mary, and, with her child, was worshipped with the same idolatrous feeling by professing Christians, as formerly by open and avowed Pagans. This Babylonian queen of heaven is now said to be the third person of the godhead, the holy spirit. She is also worshipped as the incarnation of the spirit of god under the name of the 'Dove', with whom she was identified. Until Raphael somewhat departed from the beaten track, there was nothing either Jewish or Italian in the Romish Madonna. In almost all lands the great goddess has been described with golden or yellow hair, blue eyes and fair skin, which really stands from the Jewish dark-eyed beauties, with raven locks. The disk or circle of light that frequently encompasses the head is a well known symbol of the Sun-divinity, and figured largely in the symbolism of the East and Pagan Rome as well as the modern day Madonna's.
Athor, 'the habitation of god'.
Isis, goddess of fertility and motherhood. According to the Egyptian belief, she was the sister-wife of Osiris, judge of the dead, and mother of Horus, god of day. She was part of the Egyptian Trinity.
Maut, the goddess-mother, who was adorned in such a way as to identify her with Rhea, the great goddess-mother of Chaldea.
Aphrodite, the 'wrath-subduer', goddess of love and beauty and the counterpart of the Roman Venus.
Ariadne, wife of Bacchus, was yellow-haired.
Artemis, goddess of wild nature. She was one of the principal goddesses, counterpart of the Roman goddess Diana. Artemis is also identified with the goddesses Selene and Hecate.
Astarte, Greek and Roman name of the supreme female divinity of the Phoenician nations, the goddess of love and fruitfulness. She is mentioned in the Old Testament in the plural form Ashtaroth. She is identified with various Greek goddesses: Selene, goddess of the moon; Artemis, goddess of wild nature; and Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty. Her Babylonian and Assyrian counterpart was Ishtar.
Ceres, the great mother, with the babe at her breast.
Diana, of the Ephesians, was depicted as a virgin, but had the attributes of the mother of the gods. Her constant symbol is the bee. The chief priest himself was called Essen, or the king-bee.
Hestia, virgin goddess of the hearth. Hestia was worshipped as Vesta in Rome.
Irene, the goddess of peace, was worshipped as the mother, with the boy Plutus in her arms.
Persephone, was the Greek counterpart of the Latin Proserpine. The Eleusinian Mysteries were held in honour of her and her mother.
Rhea, mother of the gods, a Titan, and sister and wife of the Titan Cronus. In Roman mythology, Rhea was identified with Cybele, the great mother of the gods.
Selene, goddess of the moon.
Amarusia, 'the mother of gracious acceptance', worshipped in Athens.
Bellona, goddess of war. She is often identified with the Greek war goddess Enyo.
Bona Dea, 'The good goddess'.
Cybele, Latin name of the goddess native to Phrygia in Asia Minor and known to the Greeks as Rhea, the wife of the Titan Cronus and mother of the Olympian gods. Cybele was the goddess of nature, fertility, and of fortifications, who was worshipped in Rome as the Great Mother of the Gods. She bore a key like Janus, which opened the gates of the invisible world.
Europa, whom Jupiter carried away in the form of a bull, is called 'the yellow-haired Europa'.
Fortuna, worshipped as the mother of Jupiter-puer, or Jupiter, the boy.
Gaea or Ge, the personification of mother earth, the mother of the gods and men.
Juno, (means the Dove) queen of the gods, the wife and sister of the god Jupiter. Juno is the Latin counterpart of the Greek queen of the gods, Hera. She was also worshipped as the incarnation of the holy spirit as a dove.
Libera, wife of Liber. Libera was also one of the names of Proserpine.
Minerva, goddess of wisdom, the counterpart of the Greek goddess Athena. Homer called her 'the blue-eyed Minerva' and by Ovid 'the yellow-haired'.
Proserpine, whose Greek counterpart was Persephone.
Ops, (means the flutterer) goddess of plenty, wife of Saturn, god of agriculture.
Venus, originally a goddess of gardens and fields but later identified with Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty. One of the institutions of her followers was the prostitution of virgins.
Vesta, goddess of the hearth. Vestal Virgins were selected by the High Priest, who were to guard and annually renew the sacred fire of Vesta's public shrine. They were virgins of 6 to 10 years of age, and served for 30 years.
Isi or Parvati, the mother of Iswara.
Kali, goddess of destruction.
Laksahmi, 'mother of the universe', the consort of Vishnu.
Ma Tsoops, mother goddess, queen of heaven, worshipped by seafaring people in the province of Fuh-kien.
Shing Moo, the holy mother in China being represented with a child in her arms, and a glory around her, exactly as if a Roman Catholic artist had been employed to set up a Madonna.
Virgo Deipara, 'the virgin mother of god'.
Kuanyin, Chinese goddess of mercy.
Beltis, meaning 'my lady', queen of heaven.
Dione, the heavenly dove.
Ishtar, the chief goddess of the Babylonians and the Assyrians and the counter part of Astarte, a Phoenician goddess.
Melkat-ashemin, 'queen of heaven', the moon goddess.
Mylitta, that is 'The mediatrix'. Mylitta is the same as Melitta, the feminine of Melitz, 'a mediator'. She is identified with the Roman goddess Venus, goddess of gardens and fields, and Greek goddess Astarte, goddess of love and fruitfulness. One of the institutions of her followers was the prostitution of virgins.
Sacca, 'the tabernacle'.
Semele, which means 'the image'.
Semeion, who's image was richly habited and had a golden dove on her head.
Atergatis, the fish goddess who had long yellow hair. The mermaid that figures so much in the romantic tales of the north, was borrowed from the story of Atergatis.
The Ellewoman, the Scandinavian name for mermaid, is often depicted as sitting on the surface of the waters, and combing her long golden hair with a golden comb.
Ceridwen, the great mother, with the babe at her breast, which took the form of a black-crested hen.
Urania, wife of Bacchus, the queen of heaven, also the 'heavenly dove'.
Derketo, means 'the mermaid'.
E-anush, as 'prinicpium deorum' - 'The fountains and father of the gods', is fallen Adam.
Phanesh, 'the man', Egyptian form of Eanush.
Saturn, the father of gods and men.
Osiris, when he was shut up in his coffin and set afloat on the Nile river on 17th day of the month Athyr for twelve months. See Genesis 7:10-12; 8:3-6, 14 & 15 for the equivalent story.
Saturn, 'the hidden one', on account on his having been 'hidden' in the ark.
Oannes or Janus, 'man of the sea'.
Diphues, meaning 'twice born', because he had lived in two worlds, both before and after the flood. He was represented as a god with two heads looking in opposite directions, the one old, and the other young.
Vishnu, 'the preserver', who is celebrated as having miraculously preserved one righteous family at the time when the world was drowned. Vishnu is just the Sanscrit form of the Chaldea 'Ish-nuh', 'the man Noah', or the 'man of rest'.
Indra, 'king of the gods', god of rain.
Baal-aberin, 'lord of the mighty ones'.
Baal-abirin, 'the winged one'.
Baal, 'the lord'.
Bel or Belus.
Chaos, (Chaldaic pronunciation of Chus or Cush) god of confusion.
Hercules, the Assyrian Hercules is depicted without any weapon at all, attacking a bull. Upon killing it he placed the horns on his head and then attacked a lion.
Nebo. (Isaiah 46:1)
Hermes, is the Egyptian synonym for the 'son of Ham'. His well known title is 'the interpreter of the gods'.
Mercury, messenger of the gods and god of merchants and of trading and shared many of the attributes of the Greek god Hermes.
Vulcan, god of fire, and the father of the gods. His symbol was the hammer.
Janus, whom the ancients called Chaos, whose symbol was the club. He was often depicted as having two heads facing in opposite directions, representing Cush and Nimrod.
Hephaesus, (Hephaits, Hebrew word from Gen 11:1, which in Greek is Hephaizt, the origin of this name) god of fire and metalwork, often identified with the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.
Hercules, not the Greek or Roman one, but the truly primitive one, who was known in Egypt as having, 'by the power of the gods' (i.e. by the Spirit) fought against and over come the Giants (Nimrod and his party). Later this hero for truth and God, was adapted to Nimrod, whom pagans worshipped as the grand deliverer or messiah.
Sem, one of the names of the primitive Hercules.
Typho, whose Greek counterpart was Python.
Hercules Ogmius, which in chaldee is 'Hercules the Lamenter'. Due to the fact that after the flood man's life span was drastically shortened, Shem or Hercules Ogmius outlived no less than seven generations of his lineal descendants.
Ge or Gaea, the original mother of the gods (Genesis 3:5), the mother of mankind. This name was later applied to Semiramis.
Rhea, meaning 'the gazer' (Genesis 3:6). This name was later applied to Semiramis.
© S. D. Goeldner.
© S. D. Goeldner, 1999. Last updated November, 2019.
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